December 10, 2008

The Masonic Handshake

Filed under: Games Industry,Personal — bittermanandy @ 11:43 pm

I’ve had a few people contact me to ask, “do you have any advice for how to get into the games industry?” Besides being ironic given that I’m no longer a part of the industry myself, this is a phrase that I really despise, because – well, I’ll get to that in a minute.

I’m going to start by making a couple of assumptions. I’m going to assume that the the person asking the question is really asking, “how do I get a job as a games programmer?” The reason for this assumption is that it’s the only thing I can speak with any experience about. Modern games (at least, console and AAA PC games, which is what people usually mean by “the games industry”; casual or flash games, not so much) involve teams of tens or even hundreds, involving programmers, artists, designers, scriptwriters, musicians, testers, producers, marketing, and a whole bunch of other roles. I’ve worked with all of the above, but I’d be guessing if I tried to tell you how they ended up there.

The second assumption I’ll make is that working as a games programmer is something you really want. The pay is low, compared to non-games programming. The hours are longer (though this is starting change) and the respect from management lower. Most games – and hence, the games worked on by most people – aren’t the amazing high-quality AAA 96%-rated blockbusters like Half-Life 2 that we’d all love to be a part of; in fact, most of the work you do will be soul-destroying just like in any other job. If you’re lucky, you’ll get to work at a company that lets you leave at 5pm, in which case you will get to see the sun; but even if you don’t have to crunch you could easily go months without seeing those strange creatures they call “females”. In fact, for all these reasons and more, I no longer work in games myself. But be clear about this – I’m glad I did it (for about six years). Knowing you’re doing a job you love, and finally seeing your baby on the shelf at Game and hearing someone say “yeah I played that, it’s quite good actually”, is a buzz of fulfilment like no other. Decide for yourself whether the balance works for you. It did for me, for a long while.

Anyway, where was I? Oh yes – “getting into the games industry”. I hate that phrase. It suggests there’s something magical about it, as if you need to know a special password or shake hands with the interviewer in a particular way. The truth is that games have matured into an industry like any other and you’ll get a job programming games the same way you’d get any other job.

Let’s pretend I’m going for a job as an architect. Should I:

(a) spend all day looking at my favourite building, but not really bother about any others because they suck, take a course in Social Studies because you only have to go to three lectures a week, then wonder why architecture companies don’t even respond to my applications even when I put “…it’s what I’ve always wanted to do, and I’m a fast learner!” on my CV; or

(b) learn how to be an architect, get qualified, put together a portfolio, apply for jobs, and make sure I nail the interview?

Third assumption: you answered (b).

Get Competent

If you’re going to be a games programmer, you need to be a good programmer. Sounds obvious really. I’m tempted to say, “it’s that simple”, but of course it’s not. The thing is, if you’ve yet got a job as a professional programmer, you’re probably not aware (even if you think you are!) of what being a good programmer means. That’s OK. The good news is: no-one expects you to.

The simple fact of the matter is that learning to program well comes only with experience. And, if you don’t have QA teams tearing your work to shreds, or customer complaining your software crashes, you may never realise when you’re making mistakes. (Don’t let that stop you coding – a lot – in your spare time. Any experience is better than none). When I first began applying for jobs, I rated my coding skills as 8/10. Looking back, I was more like 2/10. I’m not sure I’m more than 7/10 now, more than six years later. That’s fine – companies looking to employ new hires only really expect 2/10. So why, you might wonder, bother putting any effort into learning to code at all? You’ll learn it all on the job, right? Wrong. Getting to 2/10 is hard (remember the default state is zero!). If you don’t understand pointers, if you can’t fix compiler errors and warnings, if you can’t identify and eliminates bugs in your own code and other peoples’, if you can’t make estimates about the performance of a given algorithm: either learn that stuff or give up now. No company will expect a new hire to be the finished product. But no company will hire someone who hasn’t bothered to learn what they need to know to do the job, either.

What language should you be programming in? I’d love to say C#, but I can’t. Not yet anyway, perhaps in a few years. Currently, most companies only use C# for tools (and some not even then). The overwhelming majority of games companies use C++, and most of the rest use C. (Or, mobile developers probably use Java?) A few devs are starting to use C#, but most don’t and sadly won’t. There are a few very good reasons for this, despite the fact that C++ is a dinosaur and C++0x is going to be at least ten years too late. The first very good reason is that companies currently have millions of lines of C++ and tens of C++ programmers, and they’re not about to throw either of those away just because someone like me claims C# is more productive. The second very good reason is that there is no C# compiler for PS3 or Wii – and that’s a winning argument for companies intending to make games for those platforms. So if you want to make games,  I recommend C# and XNA. But if you want to get a job as a games programmer, I’d be doing you a disservice to say anything other than to learn C++.

You should also have a passing familiarity with two or three other languages (even if only to know that “the major differences between C++ and <language> are…”), an understanding of computer science principles, and above all, the ability to work as part of a team, including with team members who are non-programmers.

Get Qualified

Already, I’m sure some of you out there are screaming at me about this. “You don’t need a degree to be a good programmer!” they’re shouting. That’s not in dispute. “Just because you have a piece of paper, doesn’t mean you are a good programmer!” they’re adding. Completely agree with that too. However, nowadays, if you don’t have a degree in some kind of computing-related field, you probably won’t get past the recruiter’s first cut. Yes, there are exceptions, but they are exceptional! You could take a gamble, but the odds are desperately slim and you’d be much better off getting a degree. (The only time I’d say that doesn’t apply is if you’ve already been working as a professional programmer for years, in which case, yes, experience counts at least as much as a degree. But for a school-leaver or graduate, a degree is, to all intents and purposes, essential).

But – a degree in Computer Science or similar traditional field, or a new-fangled degree in Computer Games Development, perhaps even from a games-specialist University? Well… I cannot deny my prejudice here. My degree was in Computer Science, and I learned things on that course that I don’t think I’d have learned on a games-specific course that since proved invaluable. There is also the consideration that, should things not turn out as you hope, a CompSci degree will get you a job in a non-games company. I’m not sure that a Games degree would do the same. Or, look at it another way: any company will hire someone with a CompSci degree, some companies won’t hire people with a Games degree. That may change over the years, in fact I expect it to, but again – play the odds!

I should mention that at least two excellent people I worked with had Games degrees, so I wouldn’t dismiss someone with a Games degree out of hand. But, I got the impression that they were brilliant despite their Games degree, not because of it. I’ve also seen a lot of applicants with Games degrees who were simply awful and had clearly been let down by their course. It’s up to you, in the end – a Games degree or a CompSci degree is entirely your choice, and either can be made to work – but I’d still suggest that, for now at least, the latter is the better option.

Put Together a Portfolio

So you’re a good programmer and you have a piece of paper to prove it. Excellent! Regrettably, companies will still need convincing. There’s only one way to do that – happily, it coincides with the first piece of advice, “get competent” – and that’s to write some code to show to a prospective employer. (Writing the code will help you become competent, and as you become more competent you will have better code to show to employers).

What kind of code? Well, you’ll need to show a few things really. First, a simple, yet complete, polished, and bug-free game. When I say “simple”, I mean something like Tetris – but when I say complete, I mean with menus, high-score tables, multiplayer, pause, an options screen… everything you get in a pro game. Bug-free should speak for itself… Secondly, you’ll need a more advanced game that may be incomplete but demonstrates more demanding problem-solving. It should involve two or preferably more of the following: 3D graphics, 3D audio, physics, networking, AI, data driven development, and save/load. Finally, you’ll need one game component (from the list above, or “something else”) that is highly polished and well developed and could be plugged into someone else’s game if they chose to use it, so should also be clearly documented with a sensible API.

You should provide this code with your application, either on CD if it’s by snail mail, or on a website  if your application is in electronic form. Provide your complete source code, and make crystal clear exactly which parts were written by you and which by someone else. Also provide the built versions of the software (on the CD, or as a separate download from the code) but remember that actually it’s the code that’s important – recruiters probably won’t run the game and certainly won’t play it for more than five minutes to check it doesn’t crash, but they will be interested in whether your code is well-written. Only ever show your latest, best code – quality beats quantity every time.

Apply For Jobs

First impressions count for a lot: make sure yours is positive. Ensure your CV and covering letter are polished, clear and professional. There’s a lot of websites with good advice which I won’t attempt to repeat here.

Where should you apply? Well, there’s a lot of options. Do some research (subscribe to Develop and Game Developer, and join Gamasutra,, and probably a bunch of other places), and try not to close too many doors. When I was a graduate, I applied to forty games companies. I got three interviews, one of which was cancelled the day before the interview itself, and one job offer, which became two a few months later, after I’d already started working for the first. (In contrast, when I started looking to leave Rare, just six applications garnered me six interviews and five job offers – that’s the power of experience!).

Remember that large companies (EA, Microsoft, Sony, Nintendo, etc) are more likely to recruit new hires than small companies, who may not be able to afford to employ someone who will, inevitably, not be very productive for at least the first six to twelve months. Bear in mind the corporate culture of such companies – though remember you might not be able to afford to be choosy. Medium-sized companies sometimes offer a less corporate culture while still hiring graduates; some are more noted for recruiting out of University than others, for example Rare, Blitz and Codemasters in the UK. (Again consider the implications. Are they hiring graduates because they are able to recognise untapped potential – which is a very good thing – or to get a cheap source of labour – which is a bad thing? You’ll need to work that out for yourself at the interview). Whatever happens, don’t apply blind. I’d encourage you to send lots of applications, but you do need to understand what you’re applying for and why, before you do.

Ace The Interview

Again, there’s plenty of websites that can teach good interview technique, so do some research. I can tell you that having done some interviews myself, there are many things I’d be looking for, but basically I’d be looking to answer these questions: (1) will they be any good at the job? (2) will they fit into the team? (3) would I want to work with them myself? Three yes-es and I’d make an offer, any no-s and I’d give a polite “no thanks”.

To answer (1), as a programmer, you should absolutely expect to be given a programming test at (or possibly before) an interview. I’ve taken a lot of these – erm, about twenty-eight altogether? – and they vary a lot. Some – the worst – ask you obscure questions about bizarre corner cases of C++ in an effort to find out what you don’t know (that the examiner does); others ask you to debug code and write some of your own, to find out what you do know and how well you know it. Most are written, some involve giving you a laptop with a game project on it and asking you to fix the bugs. Some involve general programming knowledge, others are strictly C++ only. Whatever happens, all you can do is your best, and if you’re competent, you’ll do well enough to pass.

(2) and (3) are much more up to you. Remember that they’re looking for someone who is competent and confident, but not arrogant. One of my favourite interview techniques is to say something the candidate should know is wrong. If they agree with me, they don’t know their stuff – no hire. If they quietly say nothing, they might know it’s wrong but aren’t confident – I’d try to give them the chance to show that, but it would leave a question mark. If they argue with me or (as one candidate did) call me stupid, it shows they might have trouble fitting into a team environment, especially with temperamental non-technical types – and I won’t be offering them a job. If, however, they calmly explain that I am mistaken, and in fact the truth is this, which they know because they once did that – well, that’s a model answer.

With all that said, there’s a couple of things you need to bear in mind. Firstly, the company has gone through potentially hundreds of CVs and code samples and chosen you as someone worth inviting to interview. They may have spoken to you on the phone, and they’ve certainly set aside time for one or (usually) more people to take time out from developing a game to interview you. They wouldn’t do that if they didn’t want you to do well. If you’ve been invited to an interview – when you get there, relax. The interviewers will want to hire you, or they wouldn’t have asked to meet you: you just need to convince them that they’ll be right to do so. Secondly – remember that in a sense you are interviewing them, too, and not just when they ask “do you have any questions for us?” You should try to get a sense of the working environment, see if you get on with the interviewers, and think deeply about whether, if an offer is forthcoming, you’d want to work there. I had five very good years at Rare and I have generally positive memories, but my second games job was a big mistake, the biggest of my life – one that I could have avoided if I’d been smarter. At some stage you’re going to have to take the plunge, but if there’s a nagging voice in your head saying “…are you sure?”, make sure you can answer “yes” before accepting the job.

Getting In

With that lot under your belt you’ll soon be getting hundreds of job offers. Good luck! Hopefully you’ll be able to choose a company that is right for you. Making games for a living is a lot of fun and I’m very glad I did it. One day, I may even go back – who knows what the future holds? If you’re visiting this blog chances are you already make XNA games as a hobby and, yes, there are few things better than being paid to do something you’d be doing for fun anyway. Just remember that ultimately it’s a job like any other and you’ll do fine.

Oh yeah- speaking of which – money! Again, do some research (principally in Develop and Game Developer magazines which have annual salary surveys) to find the range of starter salaries in your area. Last I was hiring in games, about 18 months ago, £23-25K was a decent offer for a graduate programmer in the UK (outside London). Unfortunately, as a graduate you’re unlikely to have much leverage to ask for more, but equally, don’t quietly let yourself get shafted just to take a job, any job. You should also consider working hours, benefits, location, company size and stability, and whether there is a career path. In what proportions? Well, that’s up to you!



  1. Excellent advice, for any job search.

    Being a programmer since 1995, from C to C++, VB5&6, ASP, Java, now C# and all the stuff in between and around, the thing that I think stops people like me attempting to look for jobs in the industry is the wage, even though I would be doing the job I loved (or think I would) I still need to feed and cloth my kids and put a roof over their heads. I guess with the current financial down turn, if I was made redundant, then I may look to the games industry as well. Trapped by my own success lol…

    Comment by Charles Humphrey — December 11, 2008 @ 12:54 pm | Reply

  2. Great article.

    Comment by smack0007 — December 11, 2008 @ 1:55 pm | Reply

  3. I agree with Charles on the subject of salaries. For the similar experience you can earn more in other sectors. Given the current financial climate things are very unstable though.

    Whether you are writing games or commercial applications there is still a lot of gratification in the finished article. Sadly the feedback you get as a developer in general is negative. Always when the application is not working or missing functionality. Very rarely when the application is working just as the customer wants.

    In the past I have had the oppertunity to visit customers within my role. It is great feeling when they exclaim that they love the application and can’t live without it.

    Comment by Antony Kancidrowski — December 15, 2008 @ 2:03 am | Reply

  4. Thanks for the post. It’s a useful reminder of what-to-do / what-to-not-do. I’m currently looking for that kind of job, and some notes from this post will be helpful.

    Keep going on your blog, it’s very interesting !

    Comment by Gulix — December 18, 2008 @ 2:32 pm | Reply

  5. Out of interest what was your experience of career progression (better title, more responsibility, more money) within the industry? Was your experience dead-man-shoes type progression? Did people tend to get hired at one position and stay at that level? Did they often hire from outside rather for a higher position rather then look internally to move people up?

    From what I have seen myself, people who move between companies every 12-30 months seem to attain higher level positions then those who stick at a post for several years. Though I have also seen this within business application development too… ?

    From what you quoted as a starting grad salary (23-35)… is that not rather ambitious for games, especially in the climate today? I suppose as a contractor rather then salaried employee a higher wage like that might be more realistic at the expense of the fte benefits?

    Comment by Paul — December 19, 2008 @ 12:16 am | Reply

  6. Career progression, well… up to a point, if you’re good enough you will progress. Junior to regular to senior is pretty straightforward (each with a pay rise and more responsibility). After that it gets harder (there’s only so many lead roles available) and yes, dead men’s shoes or moving to other devs often seems the only way forward. That will very definitely vary with company (more than games vs. non-games I think), though.

    Philosophically, I still believe you should be able to get better at what you do and get rewarded more for it, without necessarily needing to become a lead, because the skills required for a team lead programmer are different to just being the “best” or most experienced in the team… which is what a lot of companies say, but I’ve yet to find one that does it.

    As for salary, £23-25K (25 not 35!) should be entirely realistic for a graduate programmer. It’s about what we offered last time I was involved in the hiring process at a games company. I even started on 20K and that was nearly seven years ago!

    Comment by bittermanandy — December 19, 2008 @ 1:00 am | Reply

  7. The 35k was a typo I think! I just wonder how much money you *should* be earning after x many years in full-time employment as a developer… do you know of a good site for average remuneration for x years? It really seems like a faux pas to talk about money among colleagues… unless you know them very very well. From what I’ve seen the jump from regular to senior can be problematic without jumping ship, sometimes to a company outside the gaming industry.

    Comment by Paul — December 31, 2008 @ 9:29 pm | Reply

  8. Again, Game Developer magazine has an annual salary survey, which gives results by discipline, location, experience etc. It gives international results but is mainly focussed on the US (and US developers get paid way, way more than British ones for example). Develop magazine also performs an annual survey, though it’s less in-depth and (I believe) exclusively British. Hunting through the back issues of either of those should get you the information you’re after.

    Comment by bittermanandy — January 1, 2009 @ 12:31 pm | Reply

  9. Best dammned answer to the neverending question ever – I need to link this to folks

    Comment by shyndarkly — January 15, 2009 @ 7:13 pm | Reply

  10. […] Games Industry — bittermanandy @ 2:06 pm Just a quickie… interesting follow up to my recent article, which was followed by some comments about salaries in the games […]

    Pingback by Mean salary « Pandemonium — February 9, 2009 @ 2:06 pm | Reply

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